Energy charging - calorie intake

Calories count!

  1. During long-distance competitions or training your body will burn approximately 600-900 cal/hour. "So does that mean that's how much I need to put into my body every hour to maintain my energy levels?" - the question may arise in your mind. However, we would not advise this at all, because your body is not able to absorb and process such a large amount of calorie intake at such a pace.
  2. It is one of the limiting factors in calorie loading gastric emptying and the metabolism of carbohydrates in the liver. For most athletes, this means that their body can process approximately 240-280 cal/hour in one hour, and this roughly limits the calorie intake. If you consume more than this, you will probably have stomach problems as a result.
  3. "Won't this deficit of a few hundred calories per hour cause a problem?" – another question may arise in your mind, but we have good news: you don't have to worry, because at this time your body converts the stored fat into energy , thus making up for the deficit. Plus, if you join the ranks of professional athletes whose training, fuel intake and regeneration are properly managed, your body's muscle glycogen "supply" - which can also be called your body's "premium fuel" - is adequate.
  4. Refueling and that dietary supplements the right combination strategy can increase your body's ability to convert fat into energy.
  5. For competitions and training sessions of a maximum of 2-3 hours , you can mostly rely on carbohydrates (Hammer Gel or HEED) in terms of fuel; for anything longer than that, you'll also need protein supplements, because if you don't get enough of that, your body will begin to eat up its own muscle tissue for protein and energy. In this case, soy protein may be the ideal choice.
  6. THE Hammer Nutrition Sustained Energy and Perpetual its products long-term fuels that contain not only complex carbohydrates but also soy protein.
  7. Avoid energy drinks or mixes that contain simple sugars. Your body cannot properly absorb the calories that come from simple sugars. In addition, simple sugars are quite poor sources of energy, because they can suddenly and briefly raise your energy level, but they collapse quite quickly, like a house of cards. Only use complex carbohydrates for your fuel.

In this article, you will learn the three critical points of fueling during long-distance sporting events: what, how much and when to consume.

Although the answers may be surprising at first, we can promise you that if you follow these guidelines, you will experience noticeably positive results. If you're already putting a lot of energy into your workouts and spending a lot of money on the right sports equipment , you need to make sure that your fuel strategy is on point. Your body will thank you, and your performance will justify your efforts.

The organization of long-distance or ultra-athletes it requires all three fuel sources that the body can use as an energy source: carbohydrates, protein and fat. The most important factor for optimal performance is the intake of the right fuel at the right time and in the right amount.

It is common for long-distance athletes that proper nutrition requires planning, practice and training in order to achieve the desired result on the day of the competition. This is the chapter and provides you with the necessary information on proper fueling.

Every athlete knows that "carbohydrates are king" when it comes to fueling our body during a long training session or competition. However, this does not mean that any carbohydrate can be used at any time.

Carbohydrates can help or hinder performance depending on what, how much and when you use them.

There are still too many misinformed athletes who use products as energy sources that are "loaded" with simple sugars or even use complex carbohydrates, which can be a good choice, but only at the right time and in the right amount . These established habits actually reduce, not help, performance.

Simple sugars, maltodextrin and osmolarity

Most dietary sugars are simple molecules known as monosaccharides and disaccharides. The shorter the chain length of the carbohydrate source , the higher the chemical level of the osmolality when it has already dissolved.

In the solution, the simple sugars can only reach a concentration of 6-8% , otherwise they will "sit" undigested in your stomach, since the digestive juices are incompatible with the osmolality. Products that contain simple sugars – typically sucrose , fructose, and/or glucose (dextrose)—must be extremely diluted to match body fluid osmolality (280-303 mOsm).

Poor concentration is a problem for athletes because it can't provide enough calories (perhaps up to 100 cal/hour) for working muscles. In order for our body to obtain enough calories from a 6-8% weak solution, an athlete would have to consume two or more bottles of fuel per hour, which is actually unnecessary fluid intake and increases water poisoning risk. Therefore simple sugar-based "energy drinks" are not a very wise choice.

"Okay then," you may think to yourself, "then I just need to mix a stronger concentration." Unfortunately, this approach is also incorrect and does not bring results. A 2x or 3x strength blend of simple sugar based fuel will not work as the blend is over 6-8% which is too dense to match the body's osmolality.

In such cases, it remains in the stomach until it is sufficiently diluted, and this is it it can also lead to stomach problems . And if you drink more water at this time so that your body can dilute the too thick concentrated mixture, then there is a risk of overhydration and its consequences, so this method is not recommended.

However, if you don't drink more at this time, your body will withdraw fluid and electrolytes from areas that especially need them (such as the blood and muscles) and redirect them to the digestive system to lower the osmolality of the overly dense, simple for a drink containing sugar. It's different it can also cause stomach ailments , not to mention the fact that it can strengthen cramps and result in a decrease in performance.

fact , that the use of simple sugar-based products - either alone or together with complex carbohydrate products - is unnecessary! Endurance athletes who try to meet their caloric/energy needs with sugar-based drinks, gels, and powders experience many complaints and poor performance.

The same problem exists when the athlete combines a simple sugar-based fuel with a complex carbohydrate fuel. When used simultaneously or directly in succession, simple sugars and complex carbohydrates can increase the concentration of the solution, which may exceed the effective level of digestion. This can jeopardize adequate energy production and increase the likelihood of various stomach problems.

Dr. Bill Misner put it this way: “The addition of simple sugar fractions (anything ending in '-ose') to complex carbohydrate fractions (maltodextrins) can double the osmolar pressure of the solution relative to hypertonic values. When a 6-8% sugar solution is added to a 15-18% complex carbohydrate solution, the osmolality of the combined solutions is simply not absorbed in the human gut."

Molecules that are formed by connecting hundreds or thousands of sugar molecules and do not dissolve in water are called polysaccharides. which are known as both complex carbohydrates and starches. One of them is maltodextrin, which can result in a solution concentration of up to 18%, but still matches the osmolality of the digestive system.

And this allows it to pass efficiently from the digestive organs to the liver, which converts some of the maltodextrin into glycogen for storage and some directly into glucose so that the muscles can immediately use it for their work. With polysaccharides you can provide much more energy from the stomach to the liver, so it can produce the maximum amount of energy that your body can process efficiently.

-Calorie-based complex carbohydrates such as maltodextrin are a much better choice than simple carbohydrates (simple sugars)

- Compared to simple sugars, maltodextrin allows your body to bind a larger amount of calories, which it can then use as energy

-Hammer Nutrition's fuels contain only complex carbohydrates, no added simple sugar

In terms of caloric delivery, complex carbohydrates such as maltodextrin are much better than simple carbohydrates (simple sugars). But that's not all. Because simple sugars - even in small amounts - can cause a condition that in English "insulin spike". is also called, which actually means that after training, some athletes combine simple sugars with protein in order to "feed" their muscles as soon as possible.

However, this sudden insulin intake later, it causes a dramatic drop in blood sugar levels, which can fall well below fasting levels. This lightning-quick burst of energy is the kind of blow every athlete wants to avoid.

However, complex carbohydrates such as maltodextrin, which enter the bloodstream as a 15-18% solution, do not cause these wild swings in blood sugar levels. However, even though maltodextrin has a high GI (see next page) and raises blood sugar quickly (which is pretty attractive), your body processes it with much less insulin fluctuation during exercise, probably because glucose is constantly dissolved and degraded , which is caused by polymer sources and other hormonal factors.

Thanks to this, you will never experience blood your glucose level falling below the baseline, which is also caused by simple sugars.

Simple sugars = ineffective fuels

Read the product label before you buy it. If you find anything in the ingredients list that ends in "-oz", put it back!

Using simple sugars as fuel is, to use a simple example, like trying to heat your apartment by putting papers in the fireplace. Although it gets hot quickly, it burns out just as quickly and you have to constantly feed the fire afterwards. This is not a good solution! And using complex carbohydrates is like putting a nice big log on a fire, it burns longer and more evenly, and the decline in "heat" (ie energy levels) is much more gradual.

THE The maltodextrins found in Hammer Gel , HEED, Sustained Energy, Perpetuem, Perpetuem Solids and Recoverite provide you with the maximum amount of calories. They provide a much more even and lasting energy supply without causing stomach problems.

Some sports nutritionists ignore osmolality, but we don't think its importance is overstated at all. As Dr. Misner put it, “when osmolality goes above 303 or below 280 mOsm, the gut must access minerals and fluids to maintain the narrow golden mean of 280-303 mOsm for immediate for calorie absorption. Both simple sugars and complex carbohydrates and maltodextrins are absorbed in equal proportions if the concentration of the solution is the same as the osmolality of the body fluid (280-303 mOsm).

The simple sugars they meet this criterion only if they are mixed in a low-calorie concentration of 6-8%; otherwise, i.e. at higher concentrations, digestion slows down or stops. When athletes try to replace their caloric intake with a double- or triple-strength, simple sugar-based drink, they usually experience problems such as stomach problems, bloating, vomiting or nausea and muscle cramps.

On the other hand, it is found in Hammer Nutrition's fuels maltodextrins (complex carbohydrates) match the osmolality of the body fluid even if the concentration is 15-18%. This is a distinct advantage, as your body will be able to digest and thus convert the larger amount of calories from complex carbohydrates into energy, unlike simple sugars.

-The Glycemic Index (GI) is the rate at which the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose.

-The lower the GI, the slower the process and therefore the more stable the energy release.

-If you are not eating during training or recovery, we recommend that you eat foods that have a low GI value.

-During training and immediately after, high GI carbohydrates - which quickly raise blood sugar levels - are recommended.

- Compared to simple sugars, maltodextrins raise the blood insulin level more effectively, but without the sudden rise and then fall, which is experienced with simple sugars.

Glycemic Index

People often ask us about different carbohydrates about the glycemic index and how these numbers help endurance athletes. The bottom line: GI is a numerical value that shows how quickly the body breaks down the given carbohydrate into glucose. The lower the GI, the slower the process and therefore the more stable the energy release.

For foods that you don't eat during training or recovery, the GI value is an important nutritional factor and we recommend low to medium foods. Foods with a GI value eat

Although high-GI carbohydrates consumed during and immediately after exercise - which quickly raise blood sugar levels - are very attractive, only if you can keep your caloric intake below about 280 cal/hour, since the activity of hormones related to the sympathetic nervous system inhibits GI effect on insulin release. Carbohydrates with a high GI value the negative effects on eating and health associated with its consumption are not a problem during or after training, since high GI carbohydrates perform better than those with a lower value.

Long-chain, high-glycemic index maltodextrins have a value of about 130, compared to glucose (100) or sucrose (62). It means that maltodextrins raise blood insulin levels more effectively than simple sugars, but without the rapid and high (otherwise harmful) fluctuations that simple sugars have. In addition, as already mentioned, maltodextrins allow for the absorption of a much larger amount of calories than is found with simple sugars.

Don't complex carbohydrates take longer to reap the benefits?

Because maltodextrins are made up of multiple glucose chains linked together, many may believe that the body needs more time to break down these chains and convert them into glucose. But in fact, as a well-known triathlete put it, "your body uses sugar first, it puts it before everything else, so it makes sense to consume sugars like glucose."

In practice, this is true: all carbohydrates eventually break down into glucose. However, the first fuel (sugar) that the body uses at the beginning of training is glycogen stored in the muscles, which is a long-chain (complex) carbohydrate, which, in the words of Dr. Misner: "...a form of starch whose main components are eight parts amylopectin and two parts amylose." Therefore, wouldn't it make more sense to say that the body's number one fuel is muscle glycogen, and its components are more complex in nature, and as a result, the body breaks it down and transforms it more efficiently for the purpose of rapid energy conversion?

One athlete put it this way: “As the race progresses, your ability to break down maltodextrin into a form your body can absorb (glucose) becomes slower and slower. But maltodextrin is patient. It will sit there and wait in your stomach until something goes there and breaks it down into glucose. My friend, this is what is causing the bloating and churning in your stomach.”

We cannot refute the above statement. We firmly believe that the time it takes to get from the gut to the stomach is not nearly as long as many "experts" believe. Even if maltodextrin does indeed take slightly longer to break down in the gut than glucose - if there is a difference, it's negligible - the previously mentioned arguments in favor of complex carbohydrates with simple sugars (such as glucose) or mixed carbohydrates (from this (we'll talk about it soon) clearly justify the use of complex carbohydrates.

As an interesting fact , the following can be read on the website of the company that can be connected (to a certain extent) with the aforementioned athlete: "Maltodextrin has a much lower osmolality than glucose and fructose, which is why it can be consumed in much higher concentrations without stomach problems." Maltodextrin molecules are larger than glucose, so drinks containing maltodextrin contain larger particles than glucose drinks.

The particle number determines whether how much water it will hold. The smaller amount of glucose in the drink, but with a higher number of molecules, means that it will draw more water into the intestine than maltodextrin-based drinks. Since maltodextrin-based products do not drag as much water with them into the intestines, they are absorbed into the bloodstream more quickly."

-For better results, you should stick to fuels containing complex carbohydrates. Do not combine simple sugars with complex carbohydrates.

-We do not recommend that you consume different sources of carbohydrates during training.

-During our history of more than two decades, we have found that the vast majority of athletes - with whom we have worked - have a combination of simple sugars and long-chain carbohydrates - the amount of which is greater than 1.0-1.1 grams per minute (roughly 4.0-4.6 calories/minute) - did not yield positive results. In addition, they increased the chance of stomach problems affecting performance.

Thoughts on calorie intake

"The speed of absorption and how quickly the liver can 'eject' itself are limiting factors. No matter what or how much you eat, your body will make sure to put about a gram of glucose into your bloodstream every minute. Eating more calories than that means you are taking more calories into your body than can be generated by energy donors in the stomach, electrolyte stores and fluid levels.”

- William Misner, Ph.D.- Director of Research and Product Development, Emeritus

Comment: Although the process is of course very meticulous, the truth is that the bonds in maltodextrin are very weak and break down easily in the stomach. As we have already repeated a couple of times (but it is worth emphasizing several times), maltodextrin allows your body to use a larger amount of calories as energy than you could get from simple sugars.

Which one should I use if I am an endurance athlete: complex carbohydrates by themselves or combinations of carbohydrate sources?

The results of the research led by Dutch sports scientist Asker Jeukendrup are quite exciting. In fact, a couple of companies produce fuels that contain the carbohydrate preparations used in the studies. Jeukendrup observed that, in general, a mixture of carbohydrates increases the oxidation value, which means higher energy production.

Within the framework of a study a cyclist was injected with 1.5 grams per minute, a mixture of maltodextrin and the oxidized carbohydrate of fruit sugar in a ratio of 2:1. Another study used a mixture of glucose, fructose, and sucrose, which peaked at 1.7 grams per minute. Both of these results are enough to open people's eyes, given that complex carbohydrates are oxidized at a rate of 1.0 grams per minute.

The results however, they are more than they first appear. The athletes studied by Jeukendrup cycled at a low intensity, at 50-55% maximum performance, and we can agree that this is more of a recovery pace than a competition pace.

At a comfortable 50% VO2 Max pace athletes can digest a cheeseburger or a pizza without any stomach problems. However, when heart rate and core temperature reach 70% VO2 Max, the body must transfer the heat accumulated in the core from the center to the periphery.

This, in turn, will reduce the amount of blood that is available to absorb the carbohydrates or any food that the athlete has consumed. After more than two decades of professional experience, we can say that the vast majority of athletes we have worked with - usually working at 75-85% effort during multi-hour endurance events - the combination of simple sugars and long-chain carbohydrates at 1.0-1.1 grams/minute (about 4.0-4.6 calories per minute) in larger quantities did not result in a positive result. In addition to performance-inhibiting side effects, they also cause stomach problems.

-There is a huge calorie content in body fat. The average athlete's body can contain up to 100,000 calories in the form of stored fatty acids.

-Replace calories in such a way that they help your energy production and do not interfere with the use of fatty acids as fuel.

-From about 90-120 minutes - and until you stop training - 5-15% of your calorie consumption comes from protein.

Lowell Greib (MSc ND) pointed out that gastric emptying is a key step in carbohydrate metabolism: “If your stomach can't empty the product (whatever it is), you're not going to get anything out of it, except, of course, a huge gut ache and possibly vomiting . Unless there is research that I am not aware of, gastric emptying is directly proportional to the osmolality of the solution in the stomach. Long-chain carbohydrates (maltodextrin) contribute less to increasing osmolality than disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose...etc.).”

The question is not whether the studies published by Jeukendrup are debatable, but rather whether these studies apply to faster, longer duration sporting events. We believe that this is not the case, which is why we do not recommend the use of multiple carbohydrate sources during training.

Comment: Stick to complex carbohydrate fuels, don't mix it with simple sugar directly or shortly after consuming complex carbohydrates and we guarantee you will get better results.

In general, we recommend an intake of 240-280 calories/hour. Now we'll tell you why...

You can burn up to 800 calories per hour, but your body cannot replace this amount during training. If you try to replace calories at the same rate as they are depleted, you will only cause problems for yourself, because instead of having more energy, your stomach will bloat, and nausea and vomiting may also occur . With the exception of a few exceptionally sized athletes, the average* human body can return 4.0-4.6 calories per minute from the liver to muscle tissue, which is approximately 240-280 calories per hour. For lighter competitors, this amount is less.

In most cases, if you consume more than 280 calories in an hour during a sports event, the excess amount remains unprocessed in your stomach or passes unused into the intestine.

*Approximately 72.5-75 kg

Use of fatty acids as fuel

If we can't replace all the calories used by our body, how can we stay on our feet from hour to hour? The answer is that there is a huge 'storage' of calories in body fat. The body of an average athlete it can store up to 100,000 calories in the form of fatty acids – enough to run 1,600 kilometers.

These fatty acids are fuels that are used when training exceeds two hours, provided that it exceeds approximately 60-65% of caloric expenditure. In other words, the body stores a huge amount of calories in body fat, which are released after longer training sessions or competitions in such a way as to satisfy energy needs.

However, in order for this process to continue without interruptions or compromises, you must not consume unnecessary calories. If you try to balance the energy loss from the caloric content of your fuel, you not only free yourself from various stomach problems, but also prevent the efficient use of fats .

The point is that the calories from the consumed fuel work together with your body with the fat-to-calorie conversion system . Don't try to make up for the calorie loss one at a time. The best strategy is to replace calories in an amount that supports energy production and does not interfere with the body's process of using fatty acids for fuel.

-For training or competition that lasts longer than two hours, your primary fuel should contain an 8:1 (by weight) ratio of carbohydrates to protein.

-Soy is the preferred protein source during longer workouts, as it does not immediately produce ammonia during its metabolism. Whey protein is a great choice after a workout, but not a good choice before or during a workout.

Protein as fuel

Except for the circumstances we'll discuss shortly, when your workout is longer than two hours, you'll need to add some protein to your fuel. After about 90-120 minutes—and until you stop exercising—roughly 5-15% of your caloric intake comes from protein. This process is called gluconeogenesis, which is inevitable, and if your fuel doesn't contain the protein it needs, your body will literally ingest it from its own muscle tissue. This is called catabolism (muscle breakdown), which "protein as cannibalization" are also often mentioned. This can result in early muscle fatigue (due to excess ammonia production resulting from the protein breakdown process), so you may experience muscle cramps and pain after exercise. Protein cannibalization does not have a good effect on the immune system either, as it increases the risk of colds, flu and other diseases.

For a training session or race longer than two hours, make sure your primary fuel (by weight) is an 8:1 ratio of carbohydrate to protein. Sustained Energy, Perpetuem and Perpetuem Solids meet these requirements: they are the best choices for any extended training or competition.

After about 90-120 minutes—and until you stop exercising—roughly 5-15% of your caloric intake comes from protein. This process is called gluconeogenesis, which is inevitable and if your fuel does not contain the necessary protein, your body will literally ingest it from its own muscle tissue.

Benefits of soy protein during longer training sessions

As we mentioned earlier, it is good if you introduce some protein into your body together with complex carbohydrates, and this will avoid the negative effects of breaking down muscle, however it doesn't matter what kind of protein you take in in your body at this time, you have to find the right one. Soy is one of the preferred proteins during longer workouts, primarily because ammonia is not immediately produced during its metabolism.

Whey protein , which usually has added glutamine, is an excellent post-workout protein, but not a good choice before or during exercise. During training, your body already produces ammonia, so whey protein supplemented with glutamine or turbocharged with glutamine will only aggravate the problem.

There is some confusion about the structure of glutamine and ammonia. Yes, glutamine eventually scavenges ammonia. However, the key word here is "eventually". When glutamine is metabolized, it initially increases ammonia and then sweeps up more than it originally produced, but it takes about three hours to do so.

During longer workouts, your body it already produces ammonia, and since ammonia is the primary culprit in early fatigue, it seems logical that you wouldn't want to increase your body's ammonia levels even more. However, this is exactly what you will do if you consume glutamine supplements or glutamine-enhanced whey protein during exercise. This is why soy protein is more beneficial during longer workouts.

The soy protein otherwise it has great features. First, it is an easily digestible protein. Secondly, it has an excellent amino acid profile, as it contains a significant proportion of branched chain amino acids, or BCAAs, which your body easily converts into energy. During training, the nitrogen moves from the BCAA and is used in the production of another amino acid, alanine, which, by the way, occurs naturally and in large quantities in soy protein. The liver converts alanine into glucose, which is carried by the bloodstream to the muscles for energy.

BCAA and glutamic acid, which is another amino acid that can be found in significant amounts in soy protein, which also helps replenish glutamine in the body without the risk of ammonia production, which oral glutamine usually causes.

Soy's amino acid profile is high in alanine and histidine , components of the dipeptide amino acid known as carnosine, a nutrient known for its acid-binding buffer and antioxidant properties. Soy protein is also high in aspartic acid, which plays an important role in energy production through the Krebs cycle. In addition, soy protein has a high content of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which help maintain alertness, which is especially important in long-distance competitions.

Finally, soy produces more uric acid than whey protein. This may not sound very positive at first, but uric acid is actually an antioxidant that helps neutralize free radicals that are produced during exercise. The high uric acid levels that come from soy's natural isoflavones are another reason to prefer soy protein during longer workouts.

- Races that are about 2-3 hours or a little longer are in the "gray zone", which means that you can safely use "carbohydrate + protein" or "carb only" fuel.

-For 2-3 hour races or training sessions, you should pay attention to the following when it comes to the fuel strategy, even if you only vote for the carbohydrate-based fuel strategy or even if you vote for the carbohydrate + protein-based fuel strategy:

  • The type of competition you are participating in
  • How much effort and energy does it require?
  • The weather and how you adapt to it
  • The terrain / area


The "grey zone" of fuel

As mentioned before, if the training is longer than two hours, we generally recommend that the athlete use a "carbohydrate + protein" fuel (Sustained Energy or Perpetuem) from the beginning to the end of the training, even as a primary fuel too. The reason for this recommendation is that if you exceed two hours during your training, a small percentage of your energy needs (approximately 5-15%) will be met from protein. If you do not provide some of this from the fuel you consume, then after a while your body will use this amount in the extracted from lean muscle tissue, to produce the amino acids needed to meet this small portion of the energy requirement.

The last thing you need is for your body to literally eat its own muscle tissue in order to produce fuel. One reason for this is the increase in fatigue-promoting ammonia: there is no doubt that ammonia is one of the culprits—and perhaps the only culprit—for early fatigue during longer races.

Another reason is that you will lose a larger amount of muscle tissue , which in turn prolongs the recovery time. Things might (the key word is “maybe”) be a little different on a race day. We believe that a race that is 2-3 hours or a little longer belongs to the "grey zone", which means that you can use both "carbohydrate + protein" fuel (Sustained Energy or Perpetuem) and "only carbohydrates ” fuel (HEED or Hammer Gel) as well. The following must be taken into account when making a decision:

  • The type of competition you are participating in.
    For example, running is much more vigorous than cycling, so it is more challenging for your body in terms of digestion.
  • Intensity of effort.
    It's much easier to burn calories when the pace is a little more relaxed, which is usually what happens during training rather than racing. That's why we've put together our list of "TOP 10 Mistakes Endurance Athletes Make", in which we also recommend that you write your fuel plan in pencil, not ink. What we mean by this is that the caloric intake that worked during training may not work during the competition; it is possible that you will need less during the competition than during training. In such cases, the person is especially nervous and anxious, and the pace is also harder, and there is also a greater chance of dehydration, which can contribute to the fact that the digestive system works less optimally. Furthermore, the increased pace during competition results in more blood being diverted from digestion and towards maintaining muscle function.

  • The weather and how well you can adapt to it.
    The warmer the weather, the more at risk the digestive system is. During hot weather races, athletes typically decide they need to increase fluid and Endurolytes intake while reducing calorie intake.

  • The terrain.
    For example, a lot of climbing while cycling or running tends to reduce digestion.

We are convinced that if the race is already of high intensity from the time the gun goes off , or if it gets too hot during the race, or if the terrain of the race leads through mountains and hills, then we should vote for fuel, which can be digested the fastest - such is Hammer Gel and HEED. Yes, some ammonia will be produced in the body during the effort, since we do not provide the body with certain proteins in addition to carbohydrates. However, if the race is 2-3 hours long - or a bit longer - it will end well before any problems with ammonia build-up occur.

In summary , we recommend the "carbohydrate + protein" drink (Sustained Energy or Perpetuem) in case the physical exercise exceeds two hours. However, as we get to race day, there are many variables to consider, and there are many options to choose from when the race is approximately 2-3 hours will need a fuel that is not affected by the variables mentioned above. If these factors come into play, then what about Hammer Gel or the HEED we recommend it for the more intense competition that lasts 2-3 hours. However, if you know in advance that you will be out in the field for more than three hours, we believe that your body will perform better using Sustained Energy or Perpetuem as your primary fuel, as well as the occasional use of Perpetuem Solids perfectly acceptable.

  • In terms of digestion, running is much more challenging for your body than cycling.
  • It's much easier to burn calories at a slower pace.
  • The warmer the weather, the more compromised the proper functioning of the digestive system.
  • Too much climbing/climbing reduces digestive abilities.
  • If the race is going to be high-intensity from the start, or it will be very hot during the race, a fast-digesting fuel like Hammer Gel or HEED may be the best choice.
  • Endurance Amino supplies your body with primary amino acids that are also used in the energy cycle.

Of course, these are not set in stone rules. We are all different, so the right fuel means something different to each athlete. The information previously mentioned are only suggestions to consider for a 2-3 hour race - in the "grey zone" of fuel.

When should I use Endurance Amino?

These "grey zone" events can be overcome with a super combination of HEED or Hammer Gel (or both), Endurolytes and Endurance Amino. You provide your body with high-quality calories from two very easily digestible fuel sources, you provide electrolyte replenishment with Endurolytes, while with Endurance Amino you provide your body with the primary amino acids (three branched chain amino acids and alanine), which it uses in the energy cycle .

Plus the BCAAs in Endurance Amino they help to fill up the depleted glutamine stores, and they also help to prevent the breakdown of muscle tissue - the latter helps to prevent the generation and accumulation of fatigue-causing ammonia. In addition, the glutathione component in Endurance Amino has many benefits, primarily known for its powerful antioxidant properties.

During the "gray zone" event, you can certainly use Sustained Energy, Perpetuem, and Perpetuem Solids, however, for such 2-3 hour events, it might be more appropriate to consume Hammer Gel or HEED in order to cover your caloric needs, supplemented with one or two doses of Endurance Amino capsules to meet your amino acid needs too. You should try this tactic during training!

However on longer races (lasting more than 3 hours). the  The amino acids in Endurance Amino enhance the full-spectrum amino acid profiles naturally occurring in the protein components of Sustained Energy, Perpetuem and Perpetuem Solids. However, in the case of Endurance Amino, we are only talking about a few specific amino acids - this includes the three BCAAs, alanine and glutathione (which is actually a tripeptide) - so you do not completely replace the full-spectrum amino acid profile that is present in Sustained Energy, in Perpetuem and Perpetuem Solids. For example, if you only use Endurance Amino, your body will not have access to histidine, aspartic acid, or phenylalanine (just to name a few amino acids) that have "in-workout" benefits.

-With the combination of Endurance Amino and Sustained Energy or Perpetuem, you get more amino acids "during training" without introducing too many amino acids into your body, which it doesn't really need.

Which you can get from a combination of Endurance Amino and Sustained Energy, Perpetuem or Perpetuem Solids is that your body gets more of the primary "during-workout" amino acids, which isn't a bad thing at all. We actually think this is extremely beneficial because you're making sure your body is getting more amino acids during your workout without overwhelming your body with large amounts of amino acids it doesn't necessarily need or need. Plus, with Endurance Amino, you provide your body with just the right dose of glutathione with multiple benefits.


Your body is not prepared to replace "X" immediately with "X" or "near-X" when it runs out, but it is very capable of bridging the gaps that result from calorie loss.

As you can see, there's a lot to digest in this article (pun intended!), but we're confident that if you follow our recommendations, you'll no longer suffer from the many performance-destroying problems—including stomach problems—that result from improper fuel intake.

In terms of calorie loading, the amount that we recommend does not even come close to the statement "make up as much as you lose", which is recommended by many so-called experts anyway. Rather, our recommendations reflect the amount of intake that your body can absorb and process.

When it is you start calculating your basic caloric needs , then rely primarily on complex carbohydrates, maltodextrin-based products that are "complex carbohydrate + soy protein" fuels (such as HEED and Hammer Gel), and Sustained Energy, Perpetuem or Perpeteum Solids are recommended if the workout is longer than two hours.

However, don't forget that our most important recommendation for caloric intake is to tailor it to your own needs. Don't forget to enter the fuel intake data in your training log. We've given you "very close" numbers that you can start working with, but we don't think of them as a one-size-fits-all solution. In addition to body weight, it is influenced by many factors, such as fitness level, training intensity, height, type of sport, and various physiological factors.